Affirmative Action

Roles of Affirmative Action in Education and National Development:  International and Cross-Cultural Perspectives

a presentation by David Stoloff during the Teach-In on Diversity, Tuesday, October 18, 2011, Webb 110, Eastern Connecticut State University

Origin of the uses of affirmative action

“The actual phrase “affirmative action” was first used in President John F. Kennedy’s 1961 Executive Order 10925 which requires federal contractors to “take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.” The same language was later used in Lyndon Johnson’s 1965 Executive Order 11246.”

from National Organization for Women (1995-2011).   The Origins of Affirmative Action.  Retrieved from

Other related terms – a discussion

Billie Holiday (1941). God Bless The Child.  Retrieved

Uses of affirmative for educational development 

1) need for a stable society to have a stable middle class of consumers,

2)  educational achievement, diplomas, seem as a guarantor of middle class status,

3) community development to maintain social order and guard the borders.

The case of the Jewish community in the Soviet Far East –

Minority educational policies in China –

British policies to commonwealth citizens of London

The uses of symbols in school “manifestations” to build a central government

the Tams (n.d) Laugh It Off.  Retrieved from



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